Mulholland Drive: An Intertextual Reading


  • Ebrahim Barzegar Guilan University



David Lynch, Intertextuality, Julia Kristeva


This article examines David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive from Kristeva’s concept of intertextuality. To achieve this aim, this study provides a close reading of the selected film so as to trace and illustrate the polyphonic network of references, citations, quotations and intertexts of Mulholland Drive to the significant already-made films such as Sunset Boulevard, The Wizard of Oz, and Persona.


Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. New York: Routledge, 2000.

—. Roland Barthes. London: Routledge Critical Thinkers, 2003.

Bakhtin, Mikhail. "Discourse in the Novel." Rivkin, Julia and Michael Ryan. Literary Theory: An Anthology. Lodon: Blackwell, 1998. 674-685.

—. Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics. Trans. Caryl Emerson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.

—. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Michael Holquist and Caryl Emerson. Austin: University of Texas, 1981.

Conrad, T. Mark. The Philosophy of Film Noir. Kentucky: The University of Kentucky, 2006.

Costello, Devin. "Fantasy, Desire and The Surrel: Defamiliarizing The American Dream Through Blue Velvet." Cultural Landscapes (2010): 109-131.

Devlin, William J. and Shai Biderman. The Philosophy of David Lynch.. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 2011.

Holt, Jason. "Twin Peaks, Noir, And Open Interpretation." The Philosophy of TV Noir. Ed. Steven M. Sanders and Aeon J. Skoble. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 2008.

Kristeva, Julia. Desire in Language: A Semiotics Appraoch to Literature and Art. Ed. Leon S. Roudiez. Trans. Thomas Gora, Alice Jardine and Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.

—."Word, Dialogue, Novel." The Kristeva Reader. Ed. Toril Moi. Oxford, 1986.

Love, Heather K. "Spectacular Failure: The Figure of the Lesbian in Mulholland Drive." New Literary History I.35 (2004): 117-32.

Lynch, David. Catching the Big Fish: Meditation, Consciousness, and Creativity. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Mactaggart, Allister. The Film Paintings of David Lynch: Challenging Film Theory. Bristol & Chicago: Intellect, 2010.

McGowan, Todd. The Impossible David Lynch. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Michaels, Lloyd. Ingmar Bergman's Persona. Cambridge: Cambridge Film Handbooks, 2000.

Naremore, James. More Than Night:Film Noir In Its Contexts. California: University of California, 2008.

Olson, Greg. Beautiful Darkness. Toronto: Scarecrow Press, 2008.

Orgeron, Devin. "Revising the Postmodern American Road Movies: David Lynch's The Straight Story." Journal of Film and Videro 54 (2002): 31-46.

Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith. Narrative Fiction. London: Routledge, 2002.

Stam, Robert, Robert Burgoyne and Sandy Flitterman-Lewis. New Vocabularies in Film Semiotics:Structuralism, Post-structuralism and Beyond. London & New York: Routledge, 2005.




How to Cite

Barzegar, E. (2015). Mulholland Drive: An Intertextual Reading. CINEJ Cinema Journal, 4(1), 62–78.